Saturday, May 23, 2020

Americas Reaction to the Eighteenth Ammendment - 779 Words

In 1917 was the point in history where Congress passed the Eighteenth Amendment to amend the Constitution which stated that it prohibited the export, import, manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States. This law sparked rebellion in American citizens across the nation; many people thought this law violated their right to live by their own standards. The implementation of the 18th amendment created a large number of bootleggers who were able to supply the public with illegal alcohol. Many of these bootleggers became very rich and influential through selling alcohol, gambling and using other methods. The prohibition era allowed for organized crime to flourish and these practices are still used today.†¦show more content†¦Even though the 18th amendment was implemented there was very little enforcement of the law. The government employed few prohibition agents; the majority of them could be easily bribed by the bootlegger and policemen were as well . Gangsters have many organized methods to sell their liquor. One of the methods was speakeasies, they were used by creating a password, and anyone that wanted to be granted access inside had to mutter it at the entrance. Even with prohibition in effect, the government believed America was going to go through a progressive, social change however, with alcohol in such demand it sent the U.S into darkness. One of the most notorious gangsters/bootlegger in American history was Al Capone. Iorizzo explains how Al Capone got his infamous name â€Å"Scarface.† The incident occurred one night when he insulted a patron’s sister at the bar he worked at. A customer unhappy with Al Capone’s remark used a bottle opener to leave Al Capone with three scars on his face. As Al Capone grew older, he was accused of many crimes including murder. No evidence was ever found or any witnesses that could ever tie them to accuse Al Capone of murder. One case was the death of Bill McSwiggin however, Al Capone stated that he nothing to do with the crime. Another piece of history from Al Capone was The St. Valentine’s Day massacre in which Al Capone ordered multiple hits on gang members, providing a serious threat to civilian safety in Chicago. By 1930 Al Capone had

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Mental Health And Social Work. Mental Health Social Workers

Mental Health and Social Work Mental health social workers provide prevention, remedies, and healing of many mental illnesses, by working with the client as well as their family. This type of social work has been on the rise due to an increase in mental illnesses. Three examples of a mental illness are as follows: schizophrenia, eating disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Those are just a few examples out of many, but with mental illness, you can be sure that a social worker is not far behind. The mental health social workers work diligently to address each level of their client’s diagnoses. The settings in which a social worker can work vary by the degree the social work has earned and employer requirements. The previously†¦show more content†¦There are many services a social worker can perform to create a safe environment for their clients. As a matter of fact, a social worker can administer individual therapy, family therapy, vocational rehabilitation, group therapy, and assertive community treatment (Timothy Tunner, 2017). When providing a client with individual therapy it is one on one and it gives the social worker a chance to understand their client’s past struggles that may have been the cause of the onset of schizophrenia. While performing individual therapy psychoanalytic therapy is said to explore problems and experiences that a person may have had as a child (Timothy Tunner, 2017). For this reason, psychoanalytic therapy is not recommended for a person with schizophrenia (Timothy Tunner, 2017). With family therapy, there is no guarantee that the client with schizophrenia will even be present. Family therapy is mostly a support group for the families of the mentally ill. This is a time for the families to ask questions and to get a better understanding of the illness. Then there is vocational rehabilit ation where the social worker assists their clients in meeting their academic and/or their career goals. Social workers will also use group therapy to address one’s problems in a group setting. It doesn’t necessarily have to be someone with schizophrenia, but it is a good practice to use to allow people to express their feelings and to know they’re not alone. IfShow MoreRelatedPsychiatric Social Work1522 Words   |  7 PagesOrigins Social work with people with mental illness, known initially as psychiatric social work, began in the 1950s at the six county psychiatric hospitals across Northern Ireland (Herron 1998). These hospitals were administered by the Regional Health Authorities, whilst the new psychiatric social workers were out-posted from the County Welfare Authorities. The introduction of generic social work under the Seebohm reforms into Northern Ireland in 1972 coincided with the establishment of the integratedRead MoreExamining the Skills and Traits of Mental Health Service Workers1136 Words   |  5 Pagesthe mental health of communities and society in general. Physical illnesses such as cancer, heart disease and obesity have drained medical resources everywhere much at the expense of mental health workers. Examining the characteristics of mental health care workers becomes very valuable and informative in approaching this problem. The purpose of this essay is to examine the skills and traits of a mental health service worker in order to better understand what is required to help combat mental illnessRead MoreThe Current Mental Health Policies Essay1662 Words   |  7 Pagesrelated to mental health are not only considered as personal but also affecting the relationships with significant others. The stigma and discrimination faced by people with mental health can be traced to the lack of legislation and protection of rights (Rodriguez del Barrio et al., 2014). The policy makers in mental health have a challenging task to protect the rights of individuals as well as the public (Swigger Heinmiller, 2014). Therefore, it is essential to analyse the current mental health policiesRead MoreMental Health And Addiction Services Essay930 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Mental health is one of significant issues in New Zealand. The government has been making greater efforts to improve the quality and outcomes of mental health and addiction services for clients, families, whÄ nau, and communities for a number of years (Ministry of Health, 2012). According to Ministry of Health (2014a), approximately 148,000 people accessed mental health and addiction services in 2011/12. Of these, 54% were male while 46% were female. Furthermore, approximately 126,000Read MoreCompetency Based Assessment and Interviewing1653 Words   |  7 Pagestools and interviewing skills are available to the clinical social worker within a mental health setting. This paper will examine one such assessment tool, the competency based assessment, and its applicability in a mental health setting. A comparison will be made between this advanced assessment method and a generalist social work assessment. Interviewing people who have mental health concerns can offer challenges for c linical social workers. Several interviewing techniques that can help with someRead MoreArea in Social Care Im Interested in1471 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Social Care is a profession committed to the planning and delivery of quality care and other support services for individuals and groups with identified needs. Social Care Worker plans and provides professional individual or group care to clients with personal and social needs†. (Share, 2009). In this essay I have been asked to research an area in social care that I am interested in. I am also asked to explore the role of a social care worker in my chosen area. I have defined social care and aRead More Social Workers in Mental Health Facilities and Outpatient Clinics 1487 Words   |  6 Pages When thinking about social work, there are different avenues that a worker can explore in this vast field. Because a social workers job is multifaceted, workers can not only integrate themselves in an already created avenue, but can also tailor a field, specifically for a need in the community. Looking at the many different fields in the area of social work, the area of Social Workers in Mental Health facilities and outpatient clinics stands out as an area of depth and interest. This field isRead MoreReducing Mental Health Stigmas1195 Words   |  5 PagesReducing Mental Health Stigmas According to the National Alliance of Mental Health, 1 in 5 adults in the United States of America experience mental illness in a given year (NAMI, 2017). Out of those adults, not all will seek out mental health services. If there are services in the community being offered, why are the services not utilized more often by these individuals? There may be many barriers that preventRead MoreMental Health And The Southeast Asian Community906 Words   |  4 PagesResearch Issue The research problem I am interested in studying is mental health in Southeast Asian Community. Growing up, my mother suffered from major depression and younger brother with bipolar disorder. However, my parents would not acknowledge and does not believe that talking to medical professional with help them. My brother joined a gang and was getting involved in criminal activities in middle school. He went to juvenile hall to group homes, prison and then moved to Minnesota to live withRead MoreMental Illness : The Vulnerable Population Essay1210 Words   |  5 Pages A social need that is experienced by the vulnerable population is mentally illness. Mental illness clients in my opinion are the most neglected, as well as, the most vulnerable population and today time. The scope of the issues is that mental illness disorders as schizophrenia, bipolar and major depressive disorder, are disorders persistent that affect the brain. However, these disorders can cause a person to experience a sudden mood change. Also, people with these disorders may experience difficulties

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

De-globalization and Globalization. Who is the winner Free Essays

Introduction If people look back the development of the world economy over the past decades. Manifestly, the world economy is in the time of prosperity and increasingly perfected, thanks to a notion ‘globalization’, which could be seem as one of the important contributors to promote economic prosperity. The birth of globalization was extremely changed the world economy structure, since it carried out an integrated world-wide market, both developing and developed countries could gain benefits from global integration, such as accelerating economic growth and sharing the overseas markets and plentiful resources, respectively. We will write a custom essay sample on De-globalization and Globalization. Who is the winner? or any similar topic only for you Order Now Some economists even pointed out that globalization has became an inexorable and irreversible trend of world market development. However, the belief of economic globalization was overturned again after the economic crisis in 2008. Specifically, in the process of globalization, there would be some inevitable problems and conflicts, which were criticized constantly over the past decades. With these criticisms, a new term, ‘de-globalization’, has stepped into the global market, apparently, some of the primary developed countries begin to reject trade liberalization, combining with the rising of protectionism. Undoubtedly, the reversed ideology took the global economic market into an embarrassing situation. In so doing, the conception of de-globalization was percolated into some countries quietly. But in fact, the global economic situation has already experienced a downturn during the First Great Depression in 1930s. And now, this is in another period again (Economic and So cial Commission for Western Asia, 2002). By any possibility, the de-globalization seems always followed by each Depression. So it does, in the period of economic recovery nowadays, de-globalization has already permeated everywhere. A Philippine economist, Walden Bello(2004), an adherent of de-globalization, argued that globalization is losing its credits and being in the end, while ‘de-globalization is an opportunity’. Unfortunately, despite the existence of de-globalization, the tendency of economic globalization would not be replaced, because any action would be took by de-globalization cannot continually exist, however, similarly the world economic structure could not get rid of the effect of this wave of de-globalization immediately but soonly. In respect that 80% success in Doha Round of global trade negotiation have more or less impact on Walden Bello’s announcements. Accordingly, it is worthwhile to investigate into the question. Is globalization truly come to the endThe main purpose of this paper is from financiers and economists’ perspective to illustrate de-globalization, which seems as one of outcomes of financial crisis, has side effect on economic recovery, and will not be a last winner in future world economic structure, while globalization definitely is. In this paper, I will outline some possible reasons could give rise to anti-globalization generation, then followed by description and discuss some threats of de-globalization, like protectionism and trade barrier, combining with past examples to prove de-globalization is not the feasible solution of avoiding crisis, it would make crisis worse contrarily. Ultimately, globalization will be back on the economic platform. Finally conclusion will make some suggests that the financial globalization requires more nationals could make efforts on minimize dangers and maximize the benefits., as well as a few prediction for the future global economy structure. Globalization provides both opportunity and challenge, but it follows with the generation of de-globalization The definition of globalization can be briefly describe like a process of movement of goods, capital, labour across world-wild ( Bardhan, Bowles Wallerstein, 2006). The benefits of globalization are overwhelming. For example, when countries open up, a variety of products would be exchanged frequently between rich and poor. This requires both participators should obey the fundamental principle of mutual complementarily and reciprocity, such as one country could offer comparative advantage to the other, in order to come the same target of common development. Additionally, some restrictions will be released, such as abrogating high tariff and limited foreign investment. These preferential policies help to expand economic markets and offer plenty of trade opportunities. In a sense, Foreign direct investment (FDI) is deemed to one important indication of economicglobalization performance and it refers to finance assistance for developing countries, so as the article ‘Economic and S ocial Commission for Western Asia’ in 2002 pointed out the global FDI inflow was increased from US$59 billion in 1982 to US$1491.9 billion in 2000. These figures illustrated the integration of the world economy experience rapid increase in 1990s. A higher FDI index means a nice condition of integrating into global economy. Whereas, the course of globalization is unstable. The global FDI inflow suddenly slumped more than 50 percent in 2001, accounts for 735.1 billion. This may implies that in the process of global economic growth, there would carry certain risks and threats for the reasons of economic turndown. In some extent, globalization has possibility of increase inequality and poverty (IMF Staff, 2000). More apparently, there is common acknowledgment that the developed countries hold comparative advantages of economy, such as technology and management skills, while they are advanced so far than developing countries. Undoubtedly the maximum profit will belongs to the former, and the later may not gain benefits in the short run, even suffer enormous damage and clash. Besides, competition may be the primary principle, more and more wealth would flow into the winner instead of the loser. Inequality and poverty, nevertheless, do not tell the whole story. The current world-wide economy is remaining in global economy structure. The growth of economic globalization is processed in challenges and opportunities. Even as Chow mentioned in 2001, in the year of China joined WTO, some investigators were worried about that, is it a positive impact on China’s economic development or a disaster for domestic enterprisesAs the matter of fact, China has obtained excellent achievement in economic improvement over these years. Globalization provides China large amounts of opportunity to export manufacture goods, and it also brings fearful harm, i.e. China is one of the biggest victims in the financial crisis (Hillebrand, 2009). Perhaps just because of these challenges and opportunities existence, the idea of de-globalization would come out. As Bello said that the world is in the end of globalization in 2009, while in the next year the chief Pascal Lamy said ‘Finishing Doh a round by 2011 is technically doable’ ( Tralac, 2010), which illustrated the goal of decreasing trade barrier and trade protectionism has finished about 80 percent, the remaining 20 percent needs a lot efforts on political wishes. In a certain extent, the progress of Doha round negotiation takes a great strike to the spread of de-globalization. The arising of de-globalization is not by chance, it might be a consequence by financial crisis. There is no doubt that the current world economy is growing fast, and the economic globalization has been obviously reached in a high level, while the potential risks are still existed. Even though crisis is not just result of globalization, there is a certain relationship between globalization and crisis (Lobaton et al 2001), i.e. Financial volatility and crisis will be infected by countries liberalized their financial systems. For instance, the financial crisis in 2008 was caused by American sub-prime loans. once sub-prime loans were collapsed, the crisis spread immediately to all over the world. That was lead to most countries were suffering inflation, unemployment even bankruptcy in the period of economic downturn. To confront with the serious recession, from small companies to international economic organizations carried out flexible measures, whereas some developed countries put pro tectionism and trade barrier forward on economic platform. So far, this has mostly promoted de-globalization raising. The global economy structure ups and downs, but it does not mean the end of globalization The global economy structure has experienced a downturn 70 years ago, and nowadays other downturn reoccurred after financial crisis. And this stage, protectionism as the main outcome of de-globalization. Protectionism will not beneficial to economic recovery, on the contrary, it could make the matter worse, while free trade would be a better choice. As a result of financial crisis, some developed countries are motivated for the sake of keeping survival of domestic industries, they persisted in carrying out protectionism. One of the typical examples is United States, in Jan 2009, American claimed ‘American Recovery and Reinvestment Act’, abbreviated ARRA provision or ‘Buy American’ provision (Keffer, 2009), which intended to simulate the American economy by ‘Stimulus Bill’ to support American jobs and domestic industries. In despite of this provision was criticize by many critics, American still keep the foreign products away from them. But is it a really an advisable actThe ‘Stimulus Bill’ is only for supporting iron and steel industries, however if being observe deeply of ‘Buy American’, which means all products relate to iron and steel industries, from raw material to finished product, should be made, produced, packaged in the United Stated only. But in particular, the difficulties in this procedure make suspicions about the feasibility of this provision. Even Keffer, the president of EBAA Iron Sales, was come out the words that, the act of ‘Buy American’ provision is far reaching (2009). Additionally, the implementation of the rescue plan is still in animadversion. Though the clause’s target is to stimulate American economy by creating jobs for Americans, in fact it seems to reverse. Because it can be argue that the disadvantages of ‘Buy American’ provision are likely overwhelmed by its advantages. Imaging that, there is a good chance for world economy could accelerate recovery, if governments are willing to persist in liberalizing the domestic financial sector cross countries capital movement, with making a concerted effort, the world economy will not be worse in the period of financial crisis. Since these contradictory debates were quickly increased, Some scholars have to reconsider the feasible of this provision, When United States sent a protectionism massage to the world and held in opposition to the leitmotiv of G-20, as well as WTO and Doha Round Negotiation. A bad impression might be set up by other nations. A literature was done by Hufdauer and Schott in 2009, pointed out ‘buy American is bad for America (and everyone else)’. In more specific terms, as the act was run counter to the world trade common goal, it could break U.S trade obligation and national reputation. More surprisingly, economic stimulus bills have little assistance on U.S. jobs, because both iron and steel industry are capital intensive, which may have less demand on labour force supply, It could be suppose that the reinvestment on iron and steel would make 1,000 new jobs, which is a small proportion, alternatively, if expand the plan to stimulate all manufactured goods, the most gain is 9,000 jobs. Apparently, U.S. iron and steel industry would end up with more costs than gains. With the growing up spearhead of protectionism, a terrible consequence was embroiled in worldwide. from the aspect of economics, more and more economists are worried about that, United States, as a powerful developed country, was act protectionism rampantly, these would cause other countries are imitative of American’s tail. Imaging that if the other countries are imitating of practicing protectionism universally, the world economy situation, especially for global trade system, will in confusion and ultimately intensify the negative impact of financial crisis as well as deteriorate world economy environment. Since the clause arose a mass of discontentment by worldwide opponents, the supporters have brought forward some altisonant phrases, like ‘the purpose is to make sure we are creating jobs in the United States and not in China’ (Horsley, 2009), and ‘US taxpayer money should go to US workers’ (Hufbauer,et al 2009), at the same time, Europeans began to increase its pressure on US and went against of ‘Buy American’ clause. They stressed that the act not only aggravated protectionism but also induce retaliatory moves (BBC News, 2009). The more serious is that, American went ahead and did this could provoke spiteful retaliate on trade, which could be followed by the possibility of the relationship between trade partner break up, consequently, the danger may be the eruption of trade war. As a matter of fact, terrible calamities can be traced back in history. Normally, they are catastrophic and temporary. For instance, regarding the great depression in 1930, the U.S. government legislated the Smoot-Hawley Act, which was aim to protect U.S. companies from foreign contention. Nevertheless this decision was completely deviated from the original purpose, according to the congressman Wally Herger (2010), the Smoot-Hawley Act was the ‘signature failure of 20th century protectionism’. Specifically, the tariffs, was increased a highest level in history recording, on more than 2,000 import products, and it became the highest tariff barrier over the world, then war of trade was broke out. In consequence, other counties took retaliatory tariffs on trade to United States, this could resulting in its import and export underwent a big loss, accounted for more than 50 percent, as well as world trade was slumped dramatically. Thus with the increase of protectionism would not the feasible solution of stimulating the economy recovery, instead it brings a lot of harm and pushes United States slumped deeper into great depression. So it can be seen that, the disadvantages of protectionism outweigh its gains. Furthermore, the failure of globalization is a temporary phenomenon not permanent. These can be validated by the past lessons. For example, the tensional relations on trade between India and China have lasted for a long time, unfortunately the economic downturn heightens the tensions dramatically. (Wonacott, 2009). On Jan. 23 2009 India government carried out a ban on import of toys from China for 6 months (Srivaslave, 2009). During the period of implementing this restriction, the inventories from China import toys were sold out less than in one month, this give rise to toy’s price in India market went up by around 30 percent to 100 percent. In this case, India has no choice to compromise with protectionism soon. Actually, the 6 months ban was only lasting for 39 days. While it is still need to admit that, whether ‘Smoot-Hawley’ or ‘India-China toys ban’, after all they are measures to meet an emergency, perhaps protectionism proceeds from nationalism by governments who are in suffer of great depression, so it seems that these kinds of rescue policies can be understood. Rescue policies might not have much impact on economic recovery but could help to comfort morale of their own communities in some extent. Once countries are hurting by huge unemployment, they must do something even if the ending will much severer than before. Whereas, through testify the failure of protectionism, to learn lessons of that, de-globalization would not the ending, a better global structure will be estimated later. Conclusion The financial globalization would retrogress into meltdown is seem as a necessity consequence of history process, the same as globalization, de-globalization is not the exception. Global economic integration has underwent vicissitudes over last decades, it reached in such high level at the beginning of 21 century, because it has the feature of quickly infection, financial markets become deeper and more advanced. One of the benefits of financial globalization is the preeminent contribution on developing countries commerce. Specially for China gained big advantage over export manufactured goods, however the prosperous phenomenon enable risks were invaded in market. Although financial globalization encourages economic prosperity, the potential risks and challenges also give rise to chance of appearance of financial crisis. Consequently, a shock of new round de-globalization was accompanied by the harm of economic depression. Thereby, globalization may have certain responsibility on the depression. So it does, any form of de-globalization activities are existed by the name of protectionisms will not be permanently lasted. The significant defect of de-globalization may be worse off the world economy than financial crisis does, usually these consequences are expressed as damage national reputation and rising of trade war. Hence, as the common wish of people, globalization would not really end, the current global structure is just in a temporary phenomenon, the reverse will be turn back again. Manifestly, all the comments can conclude in a word, ‘financial globalization is not necessarily to be reversed, particularly for partially integrated economies, even if the possibility of that happening still exists’ (Lobaton, et al, 2001). As far as I concerned, the threats of anti-globalization should be read as a harrowing lesson that leans toward protectionism. For those prime ministers of countries, the most useful effort I can make is to suggest that blindly insist on de-globalization cannot really protect their profits from harmful impact of financial crisis. The possible solution is that to reconsider regulatory mechanism on international trade and find out an appropriate new order in the process of globalization, because it is irrational to reject one thing when have problems on it. Financial system globalization is inevitable to avoid. Globalization is the ultimately trend of the world, the same as the earth, is in round, and entirely a whole, so does economic system. We should be smart optimists, in the sensitive downturn period, the global economic bodies are periodic reversal, but the most important is to remember that the global society begin to take into re-globalization soon. Just as Director-General of World Trade Organisation, Pascal Lamy, said that Doha round of trade negotiations is ‘technically doable’, it is still must complete remaining 20 percent by 2011, and it just requires much more efforts on political promise, the agreement will be achieved eventually. The future financial global structure of all countries may not only consider maximise self-interest. But more and more of them will choose to gain common development opportunity in becoming mutually beneficial pattern. Accordingly, keeping both rich and poor countries’ markets open, the growth in one part of the world can help stimulate the recovery over the world. Reference list Bardhan, P. Bowles, S. Wallerstein, M. (2006) Globalization and Egalitarian Redistributionc. Princeton University Press, 326pp. BBC. News ‘EU attacks ‘Buy American’ clause’, BBC News, (3 February 2009). Bello, W. (2004) Globalization: Ideas for a New World Econmy, London: Cox Wyman. Bello, W. (2009) The Virtues of Deglobalization. September 3, 2009. Chow, G. C.(2001) The Impact of Joining WTO on China’s Economic, Legal and Political Institutions. Princeton: Princeton University. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, (2002) ‘Annual Review of Developments in Globalization and Regional Integration in The Countries of The ESCWA Region’ Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, 10Dec. Herger, W. (2010) Soft Protectionism Threatens U.S.Prosperity, [Online], Available: http://herger.house.gov/index.php?option=com_contentview=articleid=665:soft-protectionism-threatens-us-prosperity-june-2010catid=72 [June 2010] Hillebrand, E. (2009) ‘Deglobalization Scenarios: Who WinsWho Loses?’, International Studies Association Annual Conference, 5 Feb. 2009, pp.15-18. Horsley, S. (2009) Buy-American Stimulus Provison Sparks Debate, [Online], Available: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=100212839 [3 Feb.2009] Hufbauer, G.C. and Schott, J.J. (2009) Buy American is bad for America (and everyone else), [Oline], Available: http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/3000 [5 Feb. 2009] IMF Staff, (2000) Globalization: Threat or opportunityApril 12,2000 ( Corrected January 2002) Keffer. J. (2009) ‘An Open Letter from Jim Keffer, President-EBAA Iron Sales’, EBAA IRON- Your connection to the future, 27 March. Lobaton, P.Z. and Schmukler, S.L. (2001) Financial Gloabalization: Opportunities and Challanger for Developing Countries, 30, May.a Srivastava, M. (2009) India-China Trade Tensions Rise, [Online], Available: http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/feb2009/gb20090211_202935.htm [11 Feb. 2009]. Tralac. (2010) Finishing Doha round by 2011’technically doable’- Lamy. [Online], Available: http://www.tralac.org/cgi-bin/giga.cgi?cmd=cause_dir_news_itemnews_id=93271cause_id=1694 [23 Sep. 2010]. The Economists, (2009) ‘Turning their backs on the world’ The Economists, Feb. 19th Wonaott, P. (2009) ‘Downturn Heightens China-India Tension on Trade’, The wall Street Journal, vol. 20, March. How to cite De-globalization and Globalization. Who is the winner?, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Essay on Rape Has Often Been Deployed As an Effective Weapon of War

Question: Write an essay on "Rape has often been deployed as an effective 'weapon of war'." Answer: Introduction Rape in war was recorded as a crime in 1474. Before that it was seen as a trophy for war. Rape in war was a time honored military policy at that time; soldiers used to rape women of the enemy as a part of victory and as a weapon to terrorize and mortify the enemy to remove them from the area. Wartime rape was different from sexual violence. It was used as a weapon by male soldiers of one country against the unarmed women civilians of another country. The strategy behind rape was to capture, torture, rape, kill, and forcefully impregnate the women to bear enemy kids. Thus, preventing them from expanding their own nation (Uvin Peter, 1988). During the wars the male used to consider them reproducers of nation and thus targets them against the national violence. In the below paragraphs, an explanation how rape was seen as a weapon in war. The history when rape was started is explained, the Bosnia and Kosovo war is explained, the Sierra Leone conflict is explained, Sexual violence in Bur ma is explained, and the use of war as a weapon by U.S. forces is also explained. In all these wars and conflicts how rape was used as a weapon is explained in detail. The paragraphs also show the value and existence of women in ancient times. Rape is a tool, a strategy, a plan, policy where the penis is a justified weapon to defeat the unarmed females. The earliest point when rape was said as a weapon of war was in 1863 in the Articles 44 47 of Lieber code describes, Rape is prohibited under the penalty of death. It was only in 1949 rape was considered as a crime and was stated in Article 27 of IV Geneva Convention stating protection of women against rape. However, the cruelties against women continued till 1972 with same pace despite of Geneva conventions. After that even in 2008 United Nations observed rape is widely violation against women but still it is least condemn war crime (Mackenzie, 2010). Thus, it was suggested Rape is a weapon of war. Finally, the Group of eight in 2013 agreed on a declaration to stop violence, conflicts, and more to be done to boycott the myth that war is inevitable consequence of war. In past methodical use of rape as a tactic of war is employed in many of the conflicts. The strategy was used in Bosnia and Kosovo and in the civil wars in Rwanda, Liberia and Uganda (Mibenge Chiseche, 2008). According to history, rape was also used as a tactic in Bangladeshs war for independence, anti-Chinese riots in Indonesia and by the Japanese soldiers in China and Korea during World War II (Sharlach, 2000). Evidences in Bosnian war suggests that rape was a rite of initiation. The fellow Serbs were imposed in to a brotherhood of guilt by being forced to rape. The soldiers who refused to rape were humiliated and even killed (Bracewell, 2000). This clearly pictures how rape was a weapon. From northern part of Bosnia, Cvijetin Maksimovie was one who was forced to perform rape attacks. In Bosnia, it was to make the distinction between groups Serbs, Muslims and Croats. A large number of rapes were reported during the Bosnia war. The estimate suggests around 20,000 to 50, 000 rape vi ctims exist. The rape was done in the victims houses, in brothels, and some in rape camps. The most terrible act was the forced impregnation that was practiced in rape camps in Brcko, Dboj, Foca, Gorazde, Kalinobik, Vesegrad, Keatern, Luka, Manjaca, Osmarka and Tronopolje. Women in these rape camps were raped daily until they gynaecologist confirms the pregnancy and were jailed till the period where abortion is not possible. The child from these motherss was given for ethnic cleansing afterwards (Boose, 2000). Another empirical illustration is from the conflict of Sierra Leone during the year 1991-2001 were infinite atrocities were carried by the opponent forces (Diken Laustsen, 2005). To show the power, the opponents used use sexually exploits the civilian populations. During the civil wars, civilian males were attacked and females were sexually exploited. The sexual exploitation consisted of gang rape, sexual assault and slavery. Human Rights Watch a NGO has documented several cases in which the fathers were forced to see the rape of their daughter child and small boys of age around 11 raping a middle age female (Kelsall, Michelle, Shanee, 2007). Additionally, knives, guns, and sticks were inserted in to the vagina of females to cause genital mutilation and spread sexually transmitted diseases like HIV, syphilis etc. The rebel forces abducted females in to act of slavery and forced marriages. They were brutally harmed and beaten up by the child soldiers. The reason to behind sexual vio lence was to terrorize the civilian men by humiliating and raping their women (Sydney Morning Herald, 2009). This laid an impact on the civilian population that they are so weak and cant even protect their women. In the above case histories it can be seen sexual violence was more of intended to break the taboos and undermine cultural values. Sexual exploitation was majorly used as a weapon to threaten the civilian population, to make them weak and gain over power them. Sex in all the wars was never seen a way to fulfill the lust and gain pleasure but, by the rebel powers it was seen like a weapon to defeat their enemies. The same way of sexual violence was also seen Rwanda, Somalia, DRC, Ivory Coast, Liberia and Zimbabwe. From year 2004-2008 in Eastern DRC rape was used as a major weapon and thousands of girls and women were raped in this short span of four years. There are many documentaries made on the rape incidences that took in Democratic Republic of Congo during the period of civil wars (Cockburn, 2010). The major conflict started in eastern part of Congo in 1988. This later, was continued by the army and become the "Africa's World War" which caused death of about 5.4 million people. It was the deadliest conflict after the World War II which utilized the same idea of using women as weapon of war. The statistics of United Nations shows that around 8000 women were raped in the conflict of 2009. The Harvard Humanitarian Initiative report of April shows that about 60% of the female victims in one part of the country were attacked by the rebel military forces and around half of them were gang raped. The country of Burma is another example where rape was used by the regimen to control their people and arm the enemies. The military men from Burma raped females Shan, Kachin, Chin, Karen, Mon, Karenni and Arakan states. A female Ma Lang, was brutally raped by the Burmese in a forest and all the male hostage were instructed to watch and drink poisoned alcohol. Langs parents reported the case to military authorities but received no response. Yet another case, took place were a female was hung on a cross naked, derisive the Christian religion. This case indicated how sexual exploitation and violence was deliberately used as a weapon to threaten and torture local ethnic peoples (Soreanu, 2010). The rapes were majorly gang rape and were done by officers showing that there is understanding between the officers and have the right to rape without any consequence. These incidences show that rape was acceptable by the troops and were acceptable and encouraged by them. The regime troops raised their voice and concerns about the sexual violence and by the UN Special Reporter for Human Rights in Burma. In spite of this, the SPDC denied it and rape was continued. Another shocking case study regarding rape was among the U.S. forces and was accused of using the rape technique against Iraqis. The CBS News channel published pictures that shows sexual abuse and torture of the Iraqis in the Abu Ghraib prison. There are several pictures that picture an American soldier raping a women prisoner and another male soldier raping a male prisoner (Copelon Rhonda, 2000). Pictures on sexual abuse are also released. In that some pictures show sexual violence of female prisoners by inserting objects like light tubes, wire and other sharp objects their vaginas and forcefully stripping the ladies to show their breasts. All the details were given by the Major General Antonio Taguba, an army officer who conducted the inquiry in Abu Ghraib jail in Iraq. It was seen in these fights the commanders and officers of the jail were the ones who threatened the prisoners and raped them. The evidences say not only females but also males were rape in Abu Gharib jail. All the se things suggest that rape was allowed and there were no consequences of it. The U.S. forces raped the prisoners to show how powerful they are in front of them. Rape was a sword to shut the prisoners mouth and threaten them so as they can never stand for themselves. It was used in the same way in U.S. as a weapon to defeat the enemies (Schauer, 1987). Rape in war and conflicts was never seen as a crime in ancient times. In fact, it was seen as a necessity to to defeat and show power over the troops. Rape was more of seen as a courageous act which was conducted by the powerful armies, officers and commanders. Rape was more of a reward for the winning team as the opponents was defeated leaving behind their children and women. It was also seen that the winners use to rape and the losers side use to publicize these rape incidences so as to gain sympathy from other nations and find a reason to unite with them. By loosing side the publicizing was to take help from other nations and gain power by uniting with them. Men belonging to the conquered nation view their rape of women as an act of humiliation. The conquering soldiers after raping destroy the power, property of the conquered men (Mostov, 1995). Rape during war was to express the victory and as a tool rule and control the troops of the conquered nation. Rape of women and its usage in war was practiced in all major wars. The Second World War, the war of Bosnia, the Sierra Leona conflict has shown how possible suggestions as why rape was a weapon in war. The conquering nations used rape as a way to conquer the enemies (Mertus Julie, 2004). It was ironical how sex was seen as a weapon rather than an act of pleasure. Not only rape but, force impregnation was another ironical practice during all these wars. Ethnic cleansing was another such procedure practiced in Bosnia after procreation. The thought and the beliefs were only to show the power over the enemies. The women were the weakest being that existed in ancient times. There were just seen as a thing which can be captured by anyone by just raping them. The essay seems to bring upon an idea of how much values and existence women had in ancient times. The other ironical thing was that rape was never considered as a crime in spite the Geneva conventions rule that sexual violence shoul d be stopped and the oppressor would be punished. It was seen there was no law to protect and safeguard women which is a major reason to use them as a weapon in war. So many docmnetries show the practice of such things in ancient times. Although this practice has been stopped to a larger extent but its painful to read about such practices. References Boose, L. (2002). Crossing the River Drina: Bosnian rape camps, Turkish impalement and Serb cultural memory, Signs, 28(1): 71-96 Bracewell,W. (2000). 'Rape In Kosovo: masculinity and Serbian nationalism', Nations and Nationalism, 6(4): 563-590. Cockburn, C. (2010). Gender relations as causal in militarization and war: A feminist standpoint. International Feminist Journal of Politics 12(2): 139157. Copelon, Rhonda. (2000). Integrating crimes against women into international criminal law. McGill Law Journal 46: 217240 Diken, B. Laustsen, C.B. (2005) Becoming abject: Rape as a weapon of war. Body and Society 11(1): 111128. Kelsall, Michelle, S., Shanee, S. (2007). When we wanted to talk about rape: Silencing sexual violence at the Special Court for Sierra Leone. International Journal of Transitional Justice 1: 355 374. Mackenzie, M. (2010) Securitizing sex? Towards a theory of the utility of wartime sexual violence. International Feminist Journal of Politics 12(2): 202221 Mertus Julie. (2004). The impact of international trials for wartime rape on womens agency. The International Journal of Feminist Politics 6: 110128 Mibenge Chiseche. (2008). Gender and ethnicity in Rwanda: On legal remedies for victims of wartime sexual violence. In Gender, violent conflict, and development, ed. Dubravka Zarkov, 145179 Mostov, J. (1995). Our women/their women: symbolic boundaries, territorial markers, and violence in the Balkans, Peace Change, 20(4): 515-529. Schauer, F. (1987) Causation theory and the causes of sexual violence. American Bar Foundation Research Journal 12(4): 737770 Sharlach, L. (2000) Rape as genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda. New Political Science 22(1): 89102. Soreanu, R. (2010). Feminist creativities and the disciplinary imaginary of International Relations. International Political Sociology 4(4): 380400.

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Michael Faraday Essays - Fellows Of The Royal Society,

Michael Faraday It is not my intention to lay before you a life of Faraday in the ordinary accepting of the term. The duty I have to perform is to give you some notion of what he has done in the world; dwelling incidentally on the spirit in which his work was executed, and introducing such personal traits as may be necessary to the completion of your picture of the philosopher, though by no means adequate to give you a complete idea of the man. Michael Faraday was born at Newington Butts, on September 22, 1791, and he died at Hampton Court, on August 25, 1867. When thirteen years old, that is to say in 1804, Faraday was apprenticed to a bookseller and bookbinder where he spent eight years of his life, after which he worked as a journeyman elsewhere. Faraday's first contact with the Royal Institution was that he was introduced by one of the members to Sir Humphry Davy's last lectures, that he took notes of those lectures; wrote them fairly out, and sent them to Davy, entreating him at the same time to enable him to quit trade, and to pursue science, which he loved. Davy was helpful to Faraday, and this should never be forgotten. He at once wrote to Faraday, and afterwards, when an opportunity occurred, made him his assistant. In Rome he made rapid progress in chemistry, and after a time was entrusted with easy analyses by Davy. In those days the Royal Institution published 'The Quarterly Journal of Science,' the precursor of 'Proceedings.' Faraday's first contribution to science appeared in that journal in 1816. It was an analysis of some caustic lime from Tuscany, which had been sent to Davy by the Duchess of Montrose. Between this period and 1818 various notes and short papers were published by Faraday. In 1818 he experimented upon 'Sounding Flames.' From time to time between 1818 and 1820 Faraday published scientific notes and notices of minor weight. At this time he was acquiring, not producing; working hard for his master and storing and strengthening his own mind. He assisted Mr. Brande in his lectures, and so quietly, skillfully, and modestly was his work done, that Mr. Brande's vocation at the time was pronounced 'lecturing on velvet.' In 1820 Faraday published a chemical paper 'on two new compounds of chlorine and carbon, and on a new compound of iodine, carbon, and hydrogen.' This paper was read before the Royal Society on December 21, 1820, and it was the first of his that was honored with a place in the 'Philosophical Transactions.' On June 12, 1821, he married, and obtained leave to bring his young wife into his rooms at the Royal Institution. There for forty-six years they lived together, occupying the suite of apartments which had been previously in the successive occupancy of Young, Davy, and Brande. At the time of her marriage Mrs. Faraday was twenty-one years of age, he being nearly thirty. Oersted, in 1820, discovered the action of a voltaic current on a magnetic needle; and immediately afterwards the splendid intellect of Ampere succeeded in showing that every magnetic phenomenon then known might be reduced to the mutual action of electric currents. This attracted Faraday's attention to the subject. He read much about it; and in the months of July, August, and September he wrote a 'history of the progress of electromagnetism,' which he published in Thomson's 'Annals of Philosophy.' Soon afterwards he took up the subject of 'Magnetic Rotations,' and on the morning of Christmas-day, 1821, he called his wife to witness, for the first time, the revolution of a magnetic needle round an electric current. Incidental to the 'historic sketch,' he repeated almost all the experiments there referred to; and these, added to his own subsequent work, made him practical master of all that was then known regarding the voltaic current. In 1821, he also touched upon a subject which subs equently received his closer attention--the vaporization of mercury at common temperatures; and immediately afterwards conducted experiments on the alloys of steel. He was accustomed in after years to present to his friends razors formed from one of the alloys then discovered. During Faraday's hours of liberty from other

Friday, March 6, 2020

Greek Alphabet Essay Example

Greek Alphabet Essay Example Greek Alphabet Paper Greek Alphabet Paper From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. Greek alphabet Type Alphabet Spoken languages Greek, with many modifications covering many languages Time period ~800 BC to the present[1] Parent systems Proto-Sinaitic alphabet Phoenician alphabet Greek alphabet Child systems Gothic Glagolitic Cyrillic Coptic Armenian alphabet Old Italic alphabet Latin alphabet Unicode range U+0370–U+03FF Greek and Coptic, U+1F00–U+1FFF Greek Extended ISO 15924 Grek Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols. Greek alphabet Alpha Nu Beta Xi Gamma Omicron Delta Pi Epsilon Rho Zeta Sigma Eta Tau Theta Upsilon Iota Phi Kappa Chi Lambda Psi Mu Omega Other characters Digamma Stigma Heta San Qoppa Sampi Greek diacritics Greek Alphabet. (Listen to the Greek alphabet) Problems listening to this file? See media help. Dipylon inscription, one of the oldest known samples of the use of the Greek alphabet, ca. 740 BCThe Greek alphabet is a set of twenty-four letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC. [2] It is still in use today. It is the first and oldest alphabet in the narrow sense that it notes each vowel and consonant with a separate symbol. [3] The letters were also used to represent Greek numerals, beginning in the 2nd century BC. : The Greek alphabet is descended from the Phoenician alphabet, and is not related to Linear B or the Cypriot syllabary, earlier writing systems for Greek. It has given rise to many other alphabets used in Europe and the Middle East, including the Latin alphabet. [3] In addition to being used for writing Ancient and Modern Greek, its letters are today used as symbols in mathematics and science, as particle names in physics, as components of star names, in the names of fraternities and sororities, in the naming of supernumerary tropical cyclones, and for other purposes.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Liverpool and Britain dependent on other countries Essay

Liverpool and Britain dependent on other countries - Essay Example Although the exact moment of globalization occurring in Liverpool is a highly debatable question considering the length of Britain’s history and its extensive involvement in world affairs, it could be send that the election of â€Å"New Labour† in 1997 marked the rapid acceleration of the period. With Tony Blair’s successful efforts to remake the formerly left-wing, anti-free trade Labour party into a pro-market moderate party, Britain decided to go full steam ahead with economic global integration. Britain got its economic act together just as globalization was accelerating, in the late 1980s. It has managed to catch and ride the current wave successfully, selling the world financial and business services where once it sold cotton textiles and machines. Shifting earlier and more decisively than most countries out of mass manufacturing, where it had few advantages over lower-cost competitors, to more easily defended high-value-added goods and services gave it an edge. Margaret Thatcher's painful union-bashing left Britain with flexible labour markets at a time when countries such as France and Germany are struggling with unbudgetable workers and high unemployment. Britain has always been a trading nation. Liverpool has been a central part of that history. Founded by King John in the 12 century, the city has been an important port for a very long time. In the 19th century it became, along with Manchester, the first two British cities connected by railway, allowing the quick transport of goods to market.